her gender so that she could gaina fair treatment from critics. With the
Moreover, the sheer variety of modern critical responses to the
"feminine novels" and the liveliness of the critical debate surrounding
them prove beyond question that never again will the same review "serve
for almost all of them". Of course, as if all areas of literary study,
much has been written that was perhaps better left unsaid, some
scholarship seem superfluous, some merely dull. But the general critical
controversy is a healthy sign, indicating that eighteenth-century women
writers are finally being judged as international artists worthy of such
consideration. What seems clearest of all is that the rediscovery of the
eighteenth-century women novelists has resulted in the skilful mapping
of a kind of new literary territory that, although not entirely unknown,
had until recently been infrequently visited and remained largely
In January 1855 after eight-month-stay with George Henry Lewes from
- The Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan (1678)
A story of a man in search of truth told with the simple clarity and
beauty of Bunyan’s prose make this the ultimate English classic.
- Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (1719)
By the end of the 19th century, no book in English literary history
had enjoyed more editions, spin-offs and translations. Crusoe’s
world-famous novel is a complex literary confection, and it’s
- Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift (1726)
A satirical masterpiece that’s never been out of print, Jonathan
Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels comes third in our list of the best
novels written in English
- Clarissa by Samuel Richardson (1748)
Clarissa is a tragic heroine, pressured by her unscrupulous
nouveau-riche family to marry a wealthy man she detests, in the book
that Samuel Johnson described as “the first book in the world for
the knowledge it displays of the human heart.”
- Tom Jones by Henry Fielding (1749)
Tom Jones is a classic English novel that captures the spirit of its
age and whose famous characters have come to represent Augustan
society in all its loquacious, turbulent, comic variety.
- The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman by Laurence
Laurence Sterne’s vivid novel caused delight and consternation when
it first appeared and has lost little of its original bite.
- Emma by Jane Austen (1816)
Jane Austen’s Emma is her masterpiece, mixing the sparkle of her
early books with a deep sensibility.
- Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (1818)
Mary Shelley’s first novel has been hailed as a masterpiece of
horror and the macabre.
- Nightmare Abbey by Thomas Love Peacock (1818)
The great pleasure of Nightmare Abbey, which was inspired by Thomas
Love Peacock’s friendship with Shelley, lies in the delight the
author takes in poking fun at the romantic movement.
- The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket by Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe’s only novel – a classic adventure story with
supernatural elements – has fascinated and influenced generations of
- Sybil by Benjamin Disraeli (1845)
The future prime minister displayed flashes of brilliance that
equalled the greatest Victorian novelists.
Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë (1847)
Charlotte Brontë’s erotic, gothic masterpiece became the sensation
of Victorian England. Its great breakthrough was its intimate
dialogue with the reader.
- Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë (1847)
Emily Brontë’s windswept masterpiece is notable not just for its
wild beauty but for its daring reinvention of the novel form itself.
- Vanity Fair by William Thackeray (1848)
William Thackeray’s masterpiece, set in Regency England, is a
bravura performance by a writer at the top of his game.
- David Copperfield by Charles Dickens (1850)
David Copperfield marked the point at which Dickens became the great
entertainer and also laid the foundations for his later, darker
- The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne (1850)
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s astounding book is full of intense symbolism
and as haunting as anything by Edgar Allan Poe.
- Moby-Dick by Herman Melville (1851)
Wise, funny and gripping, Melville’s epic work continues to cast a
long shadow over American literature.
- Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865)
Lewis Carroll’s brilliant nonsense tale is one of the most
influential and best loved in the English canon.
- The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins (1868)
Wilkie Collins’s masterpiece, hailed by many as the greatest English
detective novel, is a brilliant marriage of the sensational and the
- Little Women by Louisa May Alcott (1868-9)
Louisa May Alcott’s highly original tale aimed at a young female
market has iconic status in America and never been out of print.
- Middlemarch by George Eliot (1871-2)
This cathedral of words stands today as perhaps the greatest of the
great Victorian fictions.
- The Way We Live Now by Anthony Trollope (1875)
Inspired by the author’s fury at the corrupt state of England, and
dismissed by critics at the time, The Way We Live Now is recognised
as Trollope’s masterpiece.
- The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain (1884/5)
Mark Twain’s tale of a rebel boy and a runaway slave seeking
liberation upon the waters of the Mississippi remains a defining
classic of American literature.
- Kidnapped by Robert Louis Stevenson (1886)
A thrilling adventure story, gripping history and fascinating study
of the Scottish character, Kidnapped has lost none of its power.
- Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K Jerome (1889)
Jerome K Jerome’s accidental classic about messing about on the
Thames remains a comic gem.
- The Sign of Four by Arthur Conan Doyle (1890)
Sherlock Holmes’s second outing sees Conan Doyle’s brilliant sleuth
– and his bluff sidekick Watson – come into their own.
- The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde (1891)
Wilde’s brilliantly allusive moral tale of youth, beauty and
corruption was greeted with howls of protest on publication.
- New Grub Street by George Gissing (1891)
George Gissing’s portrayal of the hard facts of a literary life
remains as relevant today as it was in the late 19th century.
- Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy (1895)
Hardy exposed his deepest feelings in this bleak, angry novel and,
stung by the hostile response, he never wrote another.
- The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane (1895)
Stephen Crane’s account of a young man’s passage to manhood through
soldiery is a blueprint for the great American war novel.
- Dracula by Bram Stoker (1897)
Bram Stoker’s classic vampire story was very much of its time but
still resonates more than a century later.
- Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad (1899)
Joseph Conrad’s masterpiece about a life-changing journey in search
of Mr Kurtz has the simplicity of great myth.
- Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser (1900)
Theodore Dreiser was no stylist, but there’s a terrific momentum to
his unflinching novel about a country girl’s American dream.
- Kim by Rudyard Kipling (1901)
In Kipling’s classic boy’s own spy story, an orphan in British India
must make a choice between east and west.
- The Call of the Wild by Jack London (1903)
Jack London’s vivid adventures of a pet dog that goes back to nature
reveal an extraordinary style and consummate storytelling.
- The Golden Bowl by Henry James (1904)
American literature contains nothing else quite like Henry James’s
amazing, labyrinthine and claustrophobic novel.
- Hadrian the Seventh by Frederick Rolfe (1904)
This entertaining if contrived story of a hack writer and priest who
becomes pope sheds vivid light on its eccentric author – described
by DH Lawrence as a “man-demon”.
- The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame (1908)
The evergreen tale from the riverbank and a powerful contribution to
the mythology of Edwardian England.
- The History of Mr Polly by HG Wells (1910)
The choice is great, but Wells’s ironic portrait of a man very like
himself is the novel that stands out.
- Zuleika Dobson by Max Beerbohm (1911)
The passage of time has conferred a dark power upon Beerbohm’s
ostensibly light and witty Edwardian satire.
- The Good Soldier by Ford Madox Ford (1915)
Ford’s masterpiece is a searing study of moral dissolution behind
the facade of an English gentleman – and its stylistic influence
lingers to this day.
- The Thirty-Nine Steps by John Buchan (1915)
John Buchan’s espionage thriller, with its sparse, contemporary
prose, is hard to put down.
- The Rainbow by DH Lawrence (1915)
The Rainbow is perhaps DH Lawrence’s finest work, showing him for
the radical, protean, thoroughly modern writer he was.
- Of Human Bondage by W Somerset Maugham (1915)
Somerset Maugham’s semi-autobiographical novel shows the author’s
savage honesty and gift for storytelling at their best.
- The Age of Innocence by Edith Wharton (1920)
The story of a blighted New York marriage stands as a fierce
indictment of a society estranged from culture.
- Ulysses by James Joyce (1922)
This portrait of a day in the lives of three Dubliners remains a
towering work, in its word play surpassing even Shakespeare.
- Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis (1922)
What it lacks in structure and guile, this enthralling take on 20s
America makes up for in vivid satire and characterisation.
- A Passage to India by EM Forster (1924)
EM Forster’s most successful work is eerily prescient on the subject
- Gentlemen Prefer Blondes by Anita Loos (1925)
A guilty pleasure it may be, but it is impossible to overlook the
enduring influence of a tale that helped to define the jazz age.
- Mrs Dalloway by Virginia Woolf (1925)
Woolf’s great novel makes a day of party preparations the canvas for
themes of lost love, life choices and mental illness.
- The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald (1925)
Fitzgerald’s jazz age masterpiece has become a tantalising metaphor
for the eternal mystery of art.
- Lolly Willowes by Sylvia Townsend Warner (1926)
A young woman escapes convention by becoming a witch in this
original satire about England after the first world war.
- The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway (1926)
Hemingway’s first and best novel makes an escape to 1920s Spain to
explore courage, cowardice and manly authenticity.
- The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett (1929)
Dashiell Hammett’s crime thriller and its hard-boiled hero Sam Spade
influenced everyone from Chandler to Le Carré.
- As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner (1930)
The influence of William Faulkner’s immersive tale of raw
Mississippi rural life can be felt to this day.
- Brave New World by Aldous Huxley (1932)
Aldous Huxley’s vision of a future human race controlled by global
capitalism is every bit as prescient as Orwell’s more famous
- Cold Comfort Farm by Stella Gibbons (1932)
The book for which Gibbons is best remembered was a satire of
late-Victorian pastoral fiction but went on to influence many
- Nineteen Nineteen by John Dos Passos (1932)
The middle volume of John Dos Passos’s USA trilogy is revolutionary
in its intent, techniques and lasting impact.
- Tropic of Cancer by Henry Miller (1934)
The US novelist’s debut revelled in a Paris underworld of seedy sex
and changed the course of the novel – though not without a fight
with the censors.
- Scoop by Evelyn Waugh (1938)
Evelyn Waugh’s Fleet Street satire remains sharp, pertinent and
- Murphy by Samuel Beckett (1938)
Samuel Beckett’s first published novel is an absurdist masterpiece,
a showcase for his uniquely comic voice
- The Big Sleep by Raymond Chandler (1939)
Raymond Chandler’s hardboiled debut brings to life the seedy LA
underworld – and Philip Marlowe, the archetypal fictional detective.
- Party Going by Henry Green (1939)
Set on the eve of war, this neglected modernist masterpiece centres
on a group of bright young revellers delayed by fog.
- At Swim-Two-Birds by Flann O’Brien (1939)
Labyrinthine and multilayered, Flann O’Brien’s humorous debut is
both a reflection on, and an exemplar of, the Irish novel.
- The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1939)
One of the greatest of great American novels, this study of a family
torn apart by poverty and desperation in the Great Depression
shocked US society.
- Joy in the Morning by PG Wodehouse (1946)
PG Wodehouse’s elegiac Jeeves novel, written during his disastrous
years in wartime Germany, remains his masterpiece.
- All the King’s Men by Robert Penn Warren (1946)
A compelling story of personal and political corruption, set in the
1930s in the American south.
- Under the Volcano by Malcolm Lowry (1947)
Malcolm Lowry’s masterpiece about the last hours of an alcoholic
ex-diplomat in Mexico is set to the drumbeat of coming conflict.
- The Heat of the Day by Elizabeth Bowen (1948)
Elizabeth Bowen’s 1948 novel perfectly captures the atmosphere of
London during the blitz while providing brilliant insights into the
- Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell (1949)
George Orwell’s dystopian classic cost its author dear but is
arguably the best-known novel in English of the 20th century.
- The End of the Affair by Graham Greene (1951)
Graham Greene’s moving tale of adultery and its aftermath ties
together several vital strands in his work.
- The Catcher in the Rye by JD Salinger (1951)
JD Salinger’s study of teenage rebellion remains one of the most
controversial and best-loved American novels of the 20th century.
- The Adventures of Augie March by Saul Bellow (1953)
In the long-running hunt to identify the great American novel, Saul
Bellow’s picaresque third book frequently hits the mark.
- Lord of the Flies by William Golding (1954)
Dismissed at first as “rubbish & dull”, Golding’s brilliantly
observed dystopian desert island tale has since become a classic.
- Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov (1955)
Nabokov’s tragicomic tour de force crosses the boundaries of good
taste with glee.
- On the Road by Jack Kerouac (1957)
The creative history of Kerouac’s beat-generation classic, fuelled
by pea soup and benzedrine, has become as famous as the novel
- Voss by Patrick White (1957)
A love story set against the disappearance of an explorer in the
outback, Voss paved the way for a generation of Australian writers
to shrug off the colonial past.
- To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (1960)
Her second novel finally arrived this summer, but Harper Lee’s first
did enough alone to secure her lasting fame, and remains a truly
- The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie by Muriel Spark (1960)
Short and bittersweet, Muriel Spark’s tale of the downfall of a
Scottish schoolmistress is a masterpiece of narrative fiction.
- Catch-22 by Joseph Heller (1961)
This acerbic anti-war novel was slow to fire the public imagination,
but is rightly regarded as a groundbreaking critique of military
- The Golden Notebook by Doris Lessing (1962)
Hailed as one of the key texts of the women’s movement of the 1960s,
this study of a divorced single mother’s search for personal and
political identity remains a defiant, ambitious tour de force.
- A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess (1962)
Anthony Burgess’s dystopian classic still continues to startle and
provoke, refusing to be outshone by Stanley Kubrick’s brilliant film
- A Single Man by Christopher Isherwood (1964)
Christopher Isherwood’s story of a gay Englishman struggling with
bereavement in LA is a work of compressed brilliance.
- In Cold Blood by Truman Capote (1966)
Truman Capote’s non-fiction novel, a true story of bloody murder in
rural Kansas, opens a window on the dark underbelly of postwar
- The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath (1966)
Sylvia Plath’s painfully graphic roman à clef, in which a woman
struggles with her identity in the face of social pressure, is a key
text of Anglo-American feminism.
- Portnoy’s Complaint by Philip Roth (1969)
This wickedly funny novel about a young Jewish American’s obsession
with masturbation caused outrage on publication, but remains his
most dazzling work.
- Mrs Palfrey at the Claremont by Elizabeth Taylor (1971)
Elizabeth Taylor’s exquisitely drawn character study of eccentricity
in old age is a sharp and witty portrait of genteel postwar English
life facing the changes taking shape in the 60s.
- Rabbit Redux by John Updike (1971)
Harry “Rabbit” Angstrom, Updike’s lovably mediocre alter ego, is one
of America’s great literary protoganists, up there with Huck Finn
and Jay Gatsby.
- Song of Solomon by Toni Morrison (1977)
The novel with which the Nobel prize-winning author established her
name is a kaleidoscopic evocation of the African-American experience
in the 20th century.
- A Bend in the River by VS Naipaul (1979)
VS Naipaul’s hellish vision of an African nation’s path to
independence saw him accused of racism, but remains his masterpiece.
- Midnight’s Children by Salman Rushdie (1981)
The personal and the historical merge in Salman Rushdie’s dazzling,
game-changing Indian English novel of a young man born at the very
moment of Indian independence.
- Housekeeping by Marilynne Robinson (1981)
Marilynne Robinson’s tale of orphaned sisters and their oddball aunt
in a remote Idaho town is admired by everyone from Barack Obama to
Bret Easton Ellis.
- Money: A Suicide Note by Martin Amis (1984)
Martin Amis’s era-defining ode to excess unleashed one of
literature’s greatest modern monsters in self-destructive antihero
- An Artist of the Floating World by Kazuo Ishiguro (1986)
Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel about a retired artist in postwar Japan,
reflecting on his career during the country’s dark years, is a tour
de force of unreliable narration.
- The Beginning of Spring by Penelope Fitzgerald (1988)
Fitzgerald’s story, set in Russia just before the Bolshevik
revolution, is her masterpiece: a brilliant miniature whose peculiar
magic almost defies analysis.
- Breathing Lessons by Anne Tyler (1988)
Anne Tyler’s portrayal of a middle-aged, mid-American marriage
displays her narrative clarity, comic timing and ear for American
speech to perfection.
- Amongst Women by John McGahern (1990)
This modern Irish masterpiece is both a study of the faultlines of
Irish patriarchy and an elegy for a lost world.
- Underworld by Don DeLillo (1997)
A writer of “frightening perception”, Don DeLillo guides the reader
in an epic journey through America’s history and popular culture.
- Disgrace by JM Coetzee (1999)
In his Booker-winning masterpiece, Coetzee’s intensely human vision
infuses a fictional world that both invites and confounds political
- True History of the Kelly Gang by Peter Carey (2000)
Peter Carey rounds off our list of literary milestones with a Booker
prize-winning tour-de-force examining the life and times of
Australia’s infamous antihero, Ned Kelly
and other articles like Silly Novels by LadyNovelists ，Scenes of
In a critique of Mrs. Elizabeth Norman's The child of Woe: A Novel
(1789), the Analytical Review (February 1789) remarked that having no
other virtues to recommend it, the book “could only be termed truly
feminine novel,” the vast majority of which were "so near akin to each
other, that with a few alterations, the same review would serve for
almost all of them.” The Analytical Review's dismissal of novels by
women has all too often been reflected in the literary histories of
English fiction where it has been popular to view the rise of the novel
as the exclusive history of "the five greats" (Richardson, Fielding,
Smollett, and Sterne) and to ignore or at best to minimize the
contributions eighteenth-century women novelists. Serious readers of
eighteenth-century fiction have finally come to admonish, however, that
the novel did not spring fully formed from the mind of Richardson, but
was the child of many parents and the outgrowth of narrative techniques
and fictional conventions first developed by writers' popular fiction,
many of them women. In short, literary historians and critics have begun
to give eighteenth-century women novelists their due, a process of
reassessment that owes much to the rise of women's studies and a
parallel growth in critical interest in eighteenth-century fiction in
Life of Jesus and of LudwigFeuerbach's The Essence of Christianity
ofher distinct feminine views.
Today's critical focus on the "feminine novel" as a category suggests
that in one sense the Analytical Review was right: women novelists of
the eighteenth century were "akin to each other," sharing common
interests, common themes, common techniques, and as women of the
eighteenth century, a common technique, and as women of the eighteenth
century, a common fate. But the Analytical Review was also quite
mistaken, for if, as popular writers, eighteenth-century women produced
a large body of eminently forgettable (if not unreadable) works, then
many modern readers of the new paperback editions of these women's
novels remind us that eighteenth-century women novelists also created an
abundance of works marked by their quality and originality, as well as
their historical interest.
Middlemarch is a milestone of Eliot's mature works,which depicts a
and related keyconcepts in Eliot's writings.
&boli-bennett, my tutor is Chen. Her constant encouragement and
In the third and fourth part comes the textual analysis. In the two
novel up till thenhad been constructed?‘” In this way, Eliot's
passion declines, finds its final expression in thedelineation of
provincial life of avirtual town named Middlemarch in1830s with more
in Middlemarch have something to do with George Eliot's outlook
The Spanish Gypsy asthe representative, translation of David Strauss'
， The Mill on theFloss ，Silas Marner ，^omo/a， Felix
the 'best society,' and used, in so doing, an original
pseudonym in the literary circle.
divide it into six parts.
encouragement of Lewes and her distinct views onwriting, she turned to
mature genius.” Virginia Woolfmakes- the following comments on
withthe touch upon the Victorian society and a daring trial on the
relatively objective study on Middlemarch and its feminine
Firstly, Eliot's lifeexperience and her research into the Victorian
tackle with their problems so as to find out both progressiveness and
phrase, it is this: that “George Eliot, being concerned, notto offer
distinct writing features, which is highlypraised by Leavis in The Great
inter-relationship among her life, her feminine outlook and herfeminine
Of the earlier novelists it was George Eliot alone (if we except the
So it is with George Eliot in her Middlemarch, Therefore, thefeminine
Longinus points out,“The genius ofgreat poets and prose writers, as
The fifth part shall be a further exploration on George Eliot's views on
her mature work she handled withunprecedented subtlety and refinement
writer in noveland poetry. Her works include seven novels including Adam
text intends to find out the interrelationshipbetween Eliot's distinct
greatly influences her successorsincluding Henry James, Joseph Conrad,
In the first part, the authoress displays the introduction of the thesis
novelist's psychological insight andfineness of human valuation .” Lord
back toEngland, her first article Evangelical Teaching in Westminster
It is not that her power diminishes, for, to our thinking, it is at its
in 1856, among which Scenes of Clerical Life is her first novel.
As a leading woman novelist in the late Victorian era, Eliot is a
era who developed themethod of psychological analysis. George Eliot is
the purpose and significanceof the current study.
mature techniques inhandling with characters, which,to a great extent,
limitations ofGeorge Eliot's feminine views.
well received, butconsidering the discriminative views on women critics
have finished my paper. Now, it's show time. You and I will work hard to
Holt, the Radical ，Middlemarch ，Daniel Deronda ，poetry with
including theresearch background, research perspective and aspects as
the nineteenth-centuryMidlands. All her rich experience gives rise to
corresponding to the fineness of her psychological and moral insight .
In the second part, the thesis shall give the definition of women
Cecil compares George Eliot with Jane Austenand says by way of
as well as somesuggestions for further exploration.
imperfections, is one of the few Englishnovels written for grown-up
well reflected in her works,whichjustifies for our study on the
Eliot'sdeep insight into human psychological and moral aspects
The political background of Middlemarch is concerned about the first
women. What's more, her personal experience also contributes to the
own problem. It had this bearingbecause she was a great novelist, and
As far as Eliot's writing style. is concerned, she creates her fictional
views and her feminine characters. More importantly, thethesis will
OK! That is all. Thank you! Please ask questions.
relevance of JaneAusten) whose work had a direct and significant bearing
questions in family andsociety and to look into how they deal with these
characters in her works. Secondly, she specializes in ”sophisticated
questions from the gynocritic perspective.
Young called Eliot as ”moralist of the Victorian revolution .
George Eliot (1819-~1880) was bom as Mary Anne Evans, an English
Life，etc. when she worked as editor ofWestminster Review (1851-1854)。
Good morning, all appraiser committee members. I am a f. o.
commercial success,which embodies Eliot's philosophy on life, women,
world out of herpersonal experience~a middle-and-lower-class rural
The topic of my thesis is《 George Eliot “Middleton ma qi” of the female
Leavis summarizes the writing features of George Eliot from two aspects.
Conrad.” He regardsEliot as “a great artist~a great novelist, with a
questions in the novel fromthe feminine perspective. During the process,
'thoseftmdamental conventions both of form. and matter within which the
characters in it Leavis callsMiddlemarch as “the only one book to
Bill in1832 of English history. This novel has won critical triumph as
When it comes to her position in English literature,Leavis places Eliot
the text willfocus on Dorothea the protagonist to discuss the typical
bearing on the 'serious problems and preoccupations of mature
Middlemarch tohave a relatively deep study of Victorian women and their
personal relations of sophisticated charactersexhibiting the
highest in the matureMiddlemarch, the magnificent book which,with all
实用英语专业答辩开场白范文 2019-01-11 09:42 分类：资讯 阅读()
Next, it is an outline of my paper. In the main part of this paper, I
In this thesis, researches will concentrate on the feminine protagonists
English literature and herphilosophy beyond the traditional realm for
an entertainment,' but to explore a significant theme-a theme
“mnong threeother great novelists including Jane Austen, Henry James and
morality,etc. Besides,characters reflect the writer's thinking and
mid-Victorian era,she used “theauthor of article No. 4as a code name to
In the sixth part, the research shall come to the conclusion of the
cannot be neglected.
novelist,journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of the
female problems》.Here's the paper selected topic background.